Periodic Table of Elements
Periodic Table of Elements
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The periodic table, also known as the periodic table of (the) (chemical) elements, is a tabular display of the chemical elements. It is widely used in chemistry, physics, and other sciences, and is generally seen as an icon of chemistry. It is a graphic formulation of the periodic law, which states that the properties of the chemical elements exhibit a periodic dependence on their atomic numbers.
The table is divided into four roughly rectangular areas called blocks. The rows of the table are called periods, and the columns are called groups. Elements from the same column group of the periodic table show similar chemical characteristics. Trends run through the periodic table, with non-metallic character (keeping their own electrons) increasing from left to right across a period, and from down to up across a group, and metallic character (surrendering electrons to other atoms) increasing in the opposite direction. The underlying reason for these trends is electron configurations of atoms.
The first periodic table to become generally accepted was that of the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869: he formulated the periodic law as a dependence of chemical properties on atomic mass. Because not all elements were then known, there were gaps in his periodic table, and Mendeleev successfully used the periodic law to predict properties of some of the missing elements. The periodic law was recognized as a fundamental discovery in the late 19th century, and it was explained with the discovery of the atomic number and pioneering work in quantum mechanics of the early 20th century that illuminated the internal structure of the atom. With Glenn T. Seaborg’s 1945 discovery that the actinides were in fact f-block rather than d-block elements, a recognizably modern form of the table was reached. The periodic table and law are now a central and indispensable part of modern chemistry.
The periodic table continues to evolve with the progress of science. In nature, only elements up to atomic number 94 exist; to go further, it was necessary to synthesise new elements in the laboratory. Today, all the first 118 elements are known, completing the first seven rows of the table, but chemical characterisation is still needed for the heaviest elements to confirm that their properties match their positions. It is not yet known how far the table will stretch beyond these seven rows and whether the patterns of the known part of the table will continue into this unknown region. Some scientific discussion also continues regarding whether some elements are correctly positioned in today’s table. Many alternative representations of the periodic law exist, and there is some discussion as to whether or not there is an optimal form of the periodic table.
This educational game makes learning the difference between beryllium and californium more fun than it might normally be. True to its name, this Flash program quizzes students on the Periodic Table of Elements. For reference, you’ll find a complete table near the interface’s lower-left corner. The utility offers four quiz modes, three of which require you to drag the elements into the proper location on an empty or incomplete table. In the fourth game, you match an element with the appropriate symbol. The colorful interface helps breathe life into the rather drab subject of chemistry, and the jazz soundtrack is a nice if unexpected touch. You can disable the music, but that’s really the only user-customization option. The demo only will let you set the timer on each game for 10 minutes, but that’s all the reason to study harder. Chemistry students looking for an alternative to textbooks should give Periodic Table of Elements a try.
The periodic table, also called the periodic table of elements, is an organized arrangement of the 118 known chemical elements. The chemical elements are arranged from left to right and top to bottom in order of increasing atomic number, or the number of protons in an atom‘s nucleus, which generally coincides with increasing atomic mass.
The horizontal rows on the periodic table are called periods, where each period number indicates the number of orbitals for the elements in that row, according to Los Alamos National Laboratory. (Atoms have protons and neutrons in their nucleus, and surrounding that, they have their electrons arranged in orbitals, where an atomic orbital is a math term that describes the location of an electron as well as its wave-like behavior.
For instance, period 1 includes elements that have one atomic orbital where electrons spin; period 2 has two atomic orbitals, period 3 has three and so on up to period 7. The columns, or groups, on the periodic table represent the atomic elements that have the same number of valence electrons, or those electrons in the outermost orbital shell. As an example, elements in Group 8A (or VIIIA) all have a full set of eight electrons in the highest-energy orbital, according to chemist William Reusch, on his webpage at Michigan State University. Elements that occupy the same column on the periodic table (called a “group”) have identical valence electron configurations and consequently behave in a similar fashion chemically. For instance, all the group 18 elements are inert gases, meaning they don’t react with any other elements.
Why Arrange Elements in a Table?
Seeing chemical elements arranged in the modern periodic table is as familiar as seeing a map of the world, but it was not always so obvious.
The creator of the periodic table, Dmitri Mendeleev, in 1869 began collecting and sorting known properties of elements, like he was playing a game, while traveling by train. He noticed that there were groups of elements that exhibited similar properties, but he also noticed that there were plenty of exceptions to the emerging patterns.
Incredibly, instead of giving up, he tried altering the measured property values to better fit the patterns! He also predicted that certain elements must exist which didn’t at the time – again, in an effort to get the patterns in his “game” to work out.
There were plenty of skeptics and it took years to gain international acceptance, but once newly-discovered elements matched the ones that Mendeleev predicted, his patterns could not be dismissed. In addition, some of the properties that he “fudged” were later recalculated and found to be much closer to his predictions.
Does the Modern Periodic Table Change? If So, How and Who Does That?
The periodic table as we know it today is managed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, or IUPAC (eye-you-pack).
While much of what is in the periodic table is stable and unlikely to change, the IUPAC organization is responsible for deciding what needs to be changed. They have created criteria for what constitutes the discovery of a new element.
In addition, any new element must be assigned a temporary name and symbol, and if validated, given an official name. Such was the case when IUPAC recently reviewed elements 113, 115, 117 and 118, and decided to give them official names and symbols (goodbye, ununseptium and hello, tennessine!).
Atomic weights found within a periodic table one might think are constant. The truth is that atomic weights have changed as a function of time. Since 1899 the IUPAC Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW) has been evaluating atomic weights and abundances. For example, Carbon had an atomic weight of 12.00 in 1902 but today it is [12.0096, 12.0116]! Times sure have changed as the source of the sample will determine the value.
Finally, IUPAC assigns collective names (lanthanoids and actinoids) and group numbering (1 to 18) and has investigated the membership of the group 3 elements.
PubChem is working with IUPAC to help make information about the elements and the periodic table machine-readable.
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